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Additional resources for 52.Reliability
25 MPa for the lifetime of the module at a maximum cycle temperature of 100ЊC. However, for low-melting solders, the safe limits of design and operation are more stringent because of the high creep rate associated with these solders. The failure criterion is the degree or percent bulging of the solder bump that one can safely allow before the probability of contact between two ad- 198 DESIGN FOR MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY jacent bumps becomes unacceptable in terms of reliability. 9 for Pb–5%Sn solder TM ϭ Melting point temperature M ϭ Constant Cyclic Creep.
The higher the relative humidity, the larger the number of water monolayers built on the surface, and the greater the probability for chemical or electrochemical reaction in the presence of reactive ionic species. The water film becomes an electrolyte capable of sustaining localized or more widespread corrosion depending on the availability and continuity of the water film. The BET isotherm, named after the discoverers, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (23), expresses the adsorbed water-film thickness ͳ, which is inversely proportional to the corrosion time to fail- 4 ∆Hb/KB ln t50 3 2 ∆Ha/KB 1 ure (experimental) and is a function of the relative humidity H: δ∝ 3 4 1/t, (k–1) × 10–3 Figure 13.
It appears that cracks form and grow in each cycle by being fed dislocations that move in from the surrounding lattice. Thus, the intersection of moving dislocations is a principal cause of the formation of vacancies and fatigue damage. We know from the striations on the fracture surface that crack propagation takes place in each cycle. Forsyth (6) has advanced a mechanism for the formation of striations, which involves first, the extension of the crack front by simple slip on the primary glide plane and second, further extension by cross-slip as the stress increases.