A History of India, Third Edition by Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund

By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund

A heritage of India is a compact synthesis proposing the grand sweep of Indian background from antiquity to the current. It continues to be the definitive textual content at the state. This new version has been completely revised, containing new study, and an updated preface, index and dateline. The authors research the key political, fiscal, social and cultural forces that have formed the heritage of the Indian subcontinent during this survey. This vintage textual content is an authoritative certain account which emphasises and analyses the stuctural development of Indian historical past.

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Social stratification in the Late Vedic period was characterised by the emergence of a hierarchical order of estates which reflected a division of labour among various social 39 EARLY CIVILISATIONS OF THE NORTHWEST classes. At the top of this hierarchy were the first two estates, the Brahmin priests and the warrior nobility, the second level was occupied by free peasants and traders and the third level was that of the slaves, labourers and artisans belonging to the indigenous people. The emergence of an internal stratification among the Aryans is shown by the meaning attributed to the terms gramani and gramin.

It is thought they may have served as anchors for ships which used this basin as a dock. A raised platform between the basin and the city also seem to indicate that this was the dock of a major port, an emporium of trade between the Indus civilisation and Mesopotamia. Critics have doubted this interpretation and have pointed out that the ‘dock’ may have been a water reservoir which served the city and was also used for irrigating the neighbouring fields. But, regardless of the use of this basin, there seems to be no doubt that Lothal was an important trading centre and a major sea port.

There were certainly connections with Mesopotamia, but the earlier hypothesis that the Indus civilisation was merely an extension of Mesopotamian civilisation had to be rejected. The anatomy of four sites The various stages of the indigenous evolution of the Indus civilisation can be documented by an analysis of four sites which have been excavated in more recent years: Mehrgarh, Amri, Kalibangan, Lothal. These four sites reflect the sequence of the four important phases in the protohistory of the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.

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