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Extra resources for Acquisition of Morpho-Phonology: The Dutch voicing alternation
2001) argue that the alternation does not reflect a general phonological rule of Spanish, as knowledge of diphthongisation was highly sensitive to details of phonological shape. Contrary to claims of the Dual Mechanism model, they argue that there is no default pattern for Spanish diphthongisation, since even the ‘no-change’ pattern was found to be influenced by phonological islands of reliability. 3. Before we turn to a more detailed comparison of rulebased models and analogical models, the acquisition of rules will first be discussed.
9) Note that Pinker & Prince (1988) have stated that truly regular formations preserve stems unaltered. g. barak ~ brakim ‘lightning’, has both a stem change and the ‘regular’ plural suffix im). e. require listing), the -en suffix may still be regular under the Dual Mechanism approach. Irregular forms are expected to be acquired in a different way by children, as they are influenced by similar forms in associative memory. Each node of a structured lexical entry is defined in terms of a phonological string and a morphological feature set; a subnode inherits all information from its mother, except for the features it replaces or adds.
G. cat → [kœt] and horse → [O…t]), but a voicing contrast appears in the plural form (horses → [O…tid]). To account for the difference between child and adult surface forms, Smith (1973) derived the child’s output form from the adult-like underlying form with a long series of child- and language-specific ‘realisation rules’. Development was then thought to involve the ‘unlearning’ or simplification of rules. However, Smith noted that this led to the undesirable result that the child had more rules than adults and that many of the child-specific rules had the same purpose (mirroring Kisseberth’s (1970) ‘conspiracy problem’).