An Institution of General History (1685) William Howell - by William Howell (sometimes spelled Howel)

By William Howell (sometimes spelled Howel)

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In human beings intellect is itself part of the fabric of everyday experience – it is a capacity at our disposal to use, or misuse. It is difficult to say whether this should count as a categorically different kind of soul; but it indicates a difference in psychic make up sufficient to articulate the sort of experiences distinctive of human soul. In order to explore the nature of intelligent soul and the consequences of having one, we return to the Theaetetus, before turning to the Philebus. Theaetetus I revisited.

If perceiving an object is enough for the mind to be aware of itself, then perception must be understood as a rather complicated and subtle relation to the object, the nature of which is either taken as primitive or demands some other kind of clarification. Aristotle insists that awareness is not a separate function from sense perception, but somehow belongs to perception as a feature or aspect. 46 In medieval philosophy, several 45 Castañeda, Hector-Neri, “‘He’: a study in the logic of self-consciousness”, Ratio 8 (1966), 130–157; “On the phenomenologic of the ‘I’”, Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Philosophy 3 (University of Vienna, 1969), 260–266; Shoemaker, Sidney, “Self-reference and self-awareness”, Journal of Philosophy 65, 19 (1968), 555–567.

NATURALIZING CONSCIOUSNESS The most dominant debate in twentieth-century philosophy of mind concerns the way in which conscious processes relate to the natural processes of material reality. Historically, the problem has been framed and discussed in many different ways, in terms of mind and body, mind and brain, spirit and nature, meaning and causation, organism and mechanism, and software and hardware. 24 SARA HEINÄMAA ET AL. Whereas the intentional and reflexive nature of consciousness is certainly considered challenging to the project of naturalizing reality, subjectivity or phenomenality is seen as the final obstacle to this enterprise.

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