By H. J. Andrews and Jack Kape (Auth.)
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Extra info for An Introduction to Timber Engineering
3, Chapter V, shows in Table 3 the various wind pressures, and their effect o n pitched roofs is indicated in Table 4. T h e s e two tables give a clear indication of the values of these wind forces, which must be taken into account wherever they occur. A simple way of dealing with these forces is to ascertain quickly whether or not they constitute more than 20 per cent of the total design load and, at this stage, it can be decided whether or not to make use o f the Ki factor, permitting increased stresses.
A simple way of dealing with these forces is to ascertain quickly whether or not they constitute more than 20 per cent of the total design load and, at this stage, it can be decided whether or not to make use o f the Ki factor, permitting increased stresses. In framed structures the loading is built u p , as previously discussed, through the roof joists or purlins, each in turn being resolved into reactions or loads imposed o n the main frames or trusses, which in turn will impose their loads o n the columns or, in the case of rigid frames, o n the foundations.
112 has o n e grade only but is at present being revised and should then contain three grades for each timber group. T h e practice in North America is to establish a "basic stress" which is a safe working stress for clear wood of a species and takes into account all the factors required in a safe design stress except the factor for growth characteristics. A working stress for a structural grade is obtained by modifying the basic stress by a strength ratio that is related to the size of knots or other characteristics permitted in that grade.